Thus, it was on the front line until the summer, as a result of which it suffered significant damage.

Hundreds of people were taken to work in Germany; created an artificial famine.

To protect the population from the tyranny of the German authorities, in June 1943 the OUN leadership organized the Ukrainian People’s Self-Defense (UNS) in the Carpathian forests, which was included in the UPA on January 27, 1944.

On March 31, 1944, Kosiv was occupied by the Bolsheviks, and outside the city in the mountains – by the Hungarians. Thus, it was on the front line until the summer, as a result of which it suffered significant damage. After the failure of the long liberation struggle of the UPA and the SSB (OUN secret police), the Bolshevik government came to power for the second time, cracking down on the conquered people by organizing shootings and deportations of “unreliable elements.” In the postwar period, it slowed down the development of laziness and resorting, while giving priority to folk arts and crafts, there were carving artel “Hutsul region” and carpet factories. Taras Shevchenko and them. Ivan Franko, on the basis of which in 1968 the production and art association “Hutsulshchyna” began to operate art and production workshops of the Union of Artists.

After Ukraine’s independence, Kosovo’s efforts are aimed at reviving culture, spiritual life, and the economy. Various public organizations, political parties, church communities, as well as the city authorities, which have drafted a special charter of the resort town, are working in this direction.

literature

1. Burdulanyuk V., Gavrilov B. History of Prykarpattia in chronology: Main events, facts, dates. – Ivano-Frankivsk: Nova Zorya, 1998 .– 68 p.

2. Grabovetsky V. Hutsul region of the XIII-XIX centuries: Historical essay. – Lviv: Higher School, 1982 .– 150 p.

3. Grabovetsky V. Essays on the history of Prykarpattia: In 8 volumes – Ivano-Frankivsk, 1992-1995.

4. Hutsul region: Historical and ethnographic research. – K.: Naukova Dumka, 1987 .– 470 p.

5. Domashevsky M. History of the Hutsul region: In 3 volumes – Chicago: Hutsul. dosl. Institute, 1975-1986.

6. History of towns and villages of the Ukrainian SSR. Ivano-Frankivsk region. – K.: AN URSR, 1971. – 639 p.

7. From the history of Western lands: Collection. – K.: AN URSR, 1957-1960.

8. Pelipeyko I., Datsyuk J. Kosiv: Guide. – Uzhhorod: Karpaty, 1983 .– 144 p.

9. Pelipeyko I. The Jewish Community of Kosovo // Hutsul region. – 1995. – No. 18. – 6 May.

10. Stefyuk V. Kosiv in the future // Hutsul region. – 1995. – No. 38. – September 9.

03.11.2010

Istria and cultural heritage of the Hutsul village of Pistyn

The abstract provides historical information about the Hutsul village of Pistyn. The activity of folk masters of this region is characterized

Among the picturesque nature of Prykarpattia, in the middle course of one of the tributaries of the Prut, which originates from under the Hoverla and carries its clear waters to the Danube, lies a village on both its spread banks.

Once the first settlement of a few monks, then a village that grew into a city, and again a village inhabited by about 5 thousand people, 600 school-age children, each with their own destiny, with their own truth and sin, live and continue to machine the history of this blessed corner of our Of Ukraine.

The history of the village dates back hundreds or even thousands of years. Archaeological excavations show that the first people lived in the Carpathians in the Mesolithic era, ie 100-38 thousand years BC. From the end of the II century AD Carp tribes, the ancestors of white Croats, settled in the Hutsul region. Researchers suggest that it is from the name of these carriers of culture and the very name of the mountains – the Carpathians.

One of these Hutsik tribes probably got the name Hutsul region. In 1910, a wedge-shaped copper ax 14.5 cm long with a through hole near the butt was found on the eastern outskirts of the village of Pistyn. It is stored in the Przemyśl Museum (now – the territory of Poland). This rare find for our lands is over 5 thousand years old, and it is one of the oldest metal products in western Ukraine.

In the IX-XI centuries. territory of the Hutsul region, and hence our village, belonged to Kievan Rus, and from the XI to XIII centuries. to the Galician and Galician-Volyn principalities.

Back in the distant XII century, when our ancient ancestors fled from the lowlands from enslavers, they settled here, in the foothills, where it was possible to live, although the land is not so fertile, but the protection was: steep banks of the river, dense thickets of forests could always hide and save those who could not stand up to fight the enslavers.

So, when the Mongol-Tatar hordes plundered Kievan Rus, the founders of our village settled on the steep slopes of the then nameless river Pistynka. Legend has it that the settlers, coming here, saw “… all around empty, no one for you for the whole day of the transition, and they said:“ It is empty here and safe here, so we will fast so that God will bless this place for safe and secure happy living. And it was so … “. For almost 100 years, people lived here, had peace and security, cleaned places for fields and pastures. And most importantly – found the raw material. Syrovytsia is the salt that Chumaks used to go to the distant and dangerous Crimea in Greater Ukraine. Here she was underfoot. Half a meter deep digging provided with an excess of all salt. That was grace.

The fourth generation grew up here, and, of course, this settlement, called Pusten (Pistun), could not go unnoticed by the owners of these territories.

This is confirmed by historical documents. The first such mention is found in the Ipatiev Chronicle. During the reign of Danylo Halytsky, the boyar Dobroslav violated his authority and gave Kolomyia salt “to two lawless people from the tribe of stench, Lazar Domazhynets and Igor Melibozhych.” The prince immediately sent his steward Jacob with the following order: “I do not do my command, plunder the earth. You did not tell the boyars of Chernihiv to accept Dobroslav, not to give the parish to the Galicians, and to cut off the salt from Kolomyia … “, because it is intended”

The main salt warehouses were in Kolomyia, and salt was cooked in the surrounding villages. The earliest written references to them are as follows: Utoropy (1367 p.), Kosiv (1318 p.), Pistyn (1375 p.), Bereziv (1412 p.), Sheshory (1427 p.), Kuty (1427 p. ).

In 1456, King Casimir Jagiellonian IV (1447-1492) issued a special decree that no one violate the right of Kolomyia – to keep salt warehouses. This decree was issued not by accident.

The fact is that the villagers began to trade in salt themselves, bypassing warehouses in Kolomyia. Therefore, the decree stated that in case of non-compliance with this instruction, local authorities were allowed to detain violators and confiscate their products.

It is known that the peasants of these villages were imposed feudal duty. Everyone who kept a pair of horses or oxen had to be given a cart once a year to transport three barrels of salt to Kolomyia.

The first written mention of Pistyn (1375) is related to the clarification of the ownership of the salt springs that were located here. In 1416, King Wladyslaw Jagiello confirmed the granting of the village of Pyestina to Vasylk Teptukovich. Salt fishing in Pistina was an integral part of the so-called “Kolomyia salt” of the XIV-XV centuries, which began to conditionally combine the extraction, processing and trade of this product. However, the inhabitants of Pistyn were not only engaged in the extraction and boiling of salt.

The tax register from 1515 states that the tax was also paid for “deer”, ie from arable land. In this document, the name of the settlement is written in Latin in a slightly different way than in the previous ones (Pysthum). Payment of tax on administrative lands is also recorded in the register of 1579. In both registers, the owner of the settlement is the Buchatsky family, who belonged to the Ukrainian nobility, whose pedigree dates back to princely times.

In terms of planning, the village had a linear elongated structure along the river, mainly on its left bank. The panorama of the settlement was dominated by production facilities of salt industries. In the north-eastern part of the village, on Mount Zamchyshche, there was a fortification of the owner.

It is a settlement-shelter, which consisted of two parts: the upper “castle site”, ie the settlement itself, and the lower “castle site” – an outpost in the form of shafts and wooden walls – fences with towers that guarded the approaches to the main fortifications.

Landowners built such fortifications primarily for their own protection from Tatar invasions. Many towns and even villages were repeatedly attacked by the Horde: during 1600-1629 pp. Tatars made 20 raids on Kolomyia district, which then included Kosiv region. It is known that Lucha (1624), Pistyn (1621), Spas were subjected to a single raid …

The so-called “domestic wars” between the feudal lords inflicted considerable damage on peasant farms.

In 1664, more than 400 peasants and 24 dragoons with a cannon of the Spassky estate of the magnate Yablonovsky attacked the inhabitants of Mykytyntsi and Pistyn. Several people were killed in the clashes.

In 1600 a wooden five-carved church of the Assumption of the ethan frome summary\ Blessed Virgin Mary was built on a small table-shaped plateau in the western part of the village.

In order to protect against the destruction and ruin of his shrine, a monastery fortification was built around it, with ramparts and stone walls, the remains of which can be traced to this day.

Later, the Belzetski, Potocki, and Jablonowski seized the lands of the villages in various ways in the local Ukrainian nobility, in particular, Pistyn became the property of the Potocki family.

These Polish lords build castles with the hands of peasants. The archives mention Pistyn Castle, built in 1688 in the Shkarban tract, now Sturbak. Its powerful earthen fortifications are perfectly preserved. The castle was built in an ideal place, on the outside it was protected by a deep valley of the stream (now Sturbak), on the north side – the steep bank of the river, which greatly complicated the approach to it. The archives also contain a plan of the prison house and the apartment of the haiduk in Pistina, which were located in the castle.

In 1756 Pistyn received the Magdeburg right. At this time, a typical town center is formed in the middle of the settlement. The share of Polish and Jewish population in the city is increasing. The basis of economic activity of the town continues to be digestion and salt trade. Furriery and sewing, ceramics are also developing. The development of handicrafts and the rapid construction of the city center are facilitated by auctions and fairs, which are regularly held in the town.

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