Hipparchus used the first to describe the motion of the Sun and Moon.

Perhaps the UFOs we observe are one of the manifestations of this highly developed essence.


Dagaev MM, Charugin Century | | M. Astrophysics. – M.: Education, 1988. Kabardin Fr. F. Physics. – Moscow: Education, 1988. Ryabov YA Movement of celestial bodies. – M.: Nauka, 1988 Symonenko AN Asteroids or thorny paths | roads | research. – M.: Nauka, 1985.


Astronomical map of the world and its creators. Abstract

For centuries, man has sought to unravel the mystery of the great world “order” of the universe, which the ancient Greek philosophers called the cosmos (translated from Greek – “order” “beauty”), in contrast to the chaos that preceded, as they believed, the emergence of space.

The first natural science ideas about the universe around us were formulated by ancient Greek philosophers in the 7th-5th centuries. BC Their natural-philosophical teachings were based on the previously accumulated astronomical knowledge of the Egyptians, Sumerians, Babylonians, and Aryans, but differed in the essential role of explanatory hypotheses, the desire to penetrate the hidden mechanism of phenomena.

Supervision of the circular disks of the Sun, the Moon, the rounding line of the horizon, as well as the boundaries of the shadow of the Earth creeping on the moon during its eclipses, the correct repetition of day and night, seasons, sunrises and sunsets – all this suggested that the structure the universe is based on the principle of circular shapes and movements, “cyclicity” and uniformity of change. But up to the 2nd century. BC There was no separate doctrine of the sky, which would unite all the knowledge in this area into a single system.

The idea of ​​celestial phenomena, as well as phenomena “in the upper air” – literally about “meteor phenomena” have long been part of the general speculative doctrine of nature in general. These teachings were later called physics (from the Greek word “fusion” – nature – meaning periods, beings of things and phenomena). The main content of this ancient semi-philosophical “physics” or in our understanding – rather than natural philosophy, which included as hardly the main elements of cosmology and cosmogony, was the search for the unchanging beginning, which was thought to underlie the world of changing phenomena.

All the knowledge accumulated over the centuries about nature up to technical and life experience were combined, systematized, logically extremely developed in the first universal picture of the world, which he created in the 4th century BC. Aristotle (384-322 BC), the greatest ancient Greek philosopher (and, in fact, the first physicist), spent most of his life in Athens, where he founded his famous scientific school. It was the doctrine of the structure, properties and motion of everything that is part of the concept of nature. However, Aristotle for the first time separated the world of terrestrial (or rather, “sublunary”) phenomena from the celestial world, from the cosmos itself with its supposedly special laws and the nature of objects. In a special treatise “on the sky” Aristotle painted his natural philosophical picture of the world.

By the universe, Aristotle meant all existing matter (consisting, according to his theory, of the four ordinary elements – earth, water, air, fire and the fifth – heavenly – ether, which differed from ordinary matter also in that it did not have neither lightness nor moving weight). Aristotle criticized Anaxagoras for identifying the ether with the usual material element – fire. Thus, the universe, according to Aristotle, existed in the singular.

In the picture of the world of Aristotle was first expressed the idea of ​​the interconnected properties of matter, space and time. The universe seemed finite and limited to a sphere beyond which nothing material was thought, and therefore there could be no space itself, because it was defined as something that was (or could be filled with matter). Outside the material universe, there was no time, which Aristotle defined with ingenious simplicity and clarity as a measure of motion and associated with matter, explaining that “there is no motion without the physical body.” Outside the material universe, Aristotle placed the immaterial, spiritual world of the deity whose existence was postulated.

The great ancient Greek astronomer Hipparchus (c. 190-125 BC) was the first to try to reveal the mechanism of the observed motions of the stars. To this end, he first used in astronomy proposed a hundred years before him by the famous mathematician Apollonius of Pergamum geometric method of describing non-uniform periodic motions as a result of compiling simpler – uniform circular. Meanwhile, it was Plato who called for the discovery of the simple nature of the observed complex astronomical phenomena. non-uniform periodic motion can be described by circular motion in two ways: either by introducing the concept of eccentric – a circle in which it is displaced relative to the observer, or by decomposing the observed motion into two uniform circular motions with the observer in the center of circular motion.

In this model, not the body itself moves in a circle around the observer, but the center of the secondary circle (epicycle), along which the body moves. The first circle is called the deferent (carrier). Later, both models were used in ancient Greek astronomy. Hipparchus used the first to describe the motion of the Sun and Moon. For the Sun and the Moon, he determined the positions of the centers of their eccentrics, and for the first time in the history of astronomy developed a method and compiled tables to recalculate the moments of eclipses (up to 1-2 hours).

Appeared in 134 BC. A new star in the constellation Scorpio led Hipparchus to believe that changes are taking place in the world of stars. To make it easier to notice such changes in the future, Hipparchus compiled a catalog of positions in the celestial sphere of 850 stars, dividing all the stars into six classes and naming the brightest stars of the first magnitude.

The begun mathematical description of astronomical phenomena almost three centuries later reached its peak in the world system of the famous Alexandrian astronomer, geographer and optician Claudius Ptolemy (? – 168). Ptolemy supplemented the catalog of Hipparchus with his own observations of up to 1,022 stars. He invented a new astronomical instrument – the wall circle, which later played a significant role in medieval astronomy in the East and in European astronomy in the XVI century, especially in the observations of Tycho Brahe.

His fundamental work – “The Great Mathematical Construction of Astronomy in the XVI Books” in Greek “Meg ale Syntax” in ancient times gained widespread popularity under the name “Mgiste” (“most”). Europeans learned about it from Arab astronomers – under the distorted name “Bright Red Magist” or Latinized interpretation, “Almagest”. It presented the whole set of astronomical knowledge of the ancient world. In this work, Ptolemy mathematical apparatus of spherical astronomy – trigonometry. For centuries, they used the sine tables calculated by them.

Building on the achievements of Hipparchus, Ptolemy went further in the study of the then major astronomers of moving lights. He significantly supplemented and clarified the theory of the Moon, rediscovering the evection. Ptolemy’s calculated on this basis more accurate tables of the position of the Moon allowed him to improve the theory of eclipses.

To determine the longitude of the observation site, an accurate forecast of the time of the eclipse was of great importance. But the real scientific feat of the scientist was the creation of his first mathematical theory of complex visible motion of the planets, which is dedicated to five of the thirteen books of the Almagest.

short narrative ideas 11/14/2011

The solar system as part of the universe. Abstract

Universe. Space systems. Galaxy. Solar system and its structure

The universe – the entire existing material world is infinite in space and time and infinitely diverse in form. The bulk of the matter in the universe (98%) is concentrated in the stars and consists of hydrogen (80%) and helium (18%). The presence of other gases is insignificant. The most important cosmic bodies are the stars. And the interstellar space is occupied by extremely rarefied gas and dust, which in places form giant nebulae.

Stars in the universe are combined into different systems. Huge in number of stars and the size of the system are called galaxies. They are distributed unevenly in the universe, forming groups, clusters and giant systems – supergalaxies. More than 20 supergalaxies are now known.

The part of space that is available for observation by modern astronomical instruments is called the Metagalaxy.

Our galaxy (Milky Way) unites more than 150 billion stars and more than 100 million nebulae. Together with the Andromeda Nebula, it forms the center of the local galaxy system, which includes three giant spirals, 15 dwarf ellipticals, and a number of irregular galaxies. The shape of our galaxy is spiral, reminiscent of a disk.

There are cosmic rays in the Galaxy – elementary parts that have a lot of energy and move at the speed of light. In addition, the Galaxy has magnetic and gravitational fields and electromagnetic radiation.

Back in the XVIII century. It was noted that our stellar system has a flattened shape, symmetrical about the main plane, called the plane of the Galaxy. The great circle through which it intersects with the celestial sphere is called the galactic equator. It almost coincides with the middle line of the Milky Way. The central condensation of the Galaxy is called the nucleus. It has the shape of a compressed spheroid with a large half-axis of 20-25 thousand light years and a small one – 6-7 thousand.

It is established that the Sun is located at a distance of 10 thousand parsecs from the center of the Galaxy, and its boundary from the Sun – at a distance of 5 thousand ps. Thus, the diameter of the Galaxy is 30 thousand parsecs. The galaxy has a spiral structure. The planar subsystem consists of stars of spectral classes B and O, supernovae of the second type, dark nebulae, and stellar associations. as a rule, all these are young objects.

The intermediate subsystem is occupied by R V Taurus stars, white dwarfs, C and S spectral classes, and planetary nebulae. The spheroidal subsystem includes stars of the type RR Lyra, W Virgo, subdwarfs, globular star clusters, supernovae of the first type.

It is estimated that there may be several thousand scattered star clusters and about 100 globular clusters in our stellar system.

In addition to these two types, there are also so-called stellar associations in the Galaxy, which occupy a larger volume than clusters, ie the density here is significantly higher than the average density of the galactic field.

In the area of ​​the Milky Way there are dark nebulae “Horse’s Head” and “Coal Bag”.

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